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    • Ban Ki-moon's green growth agenda can bring climate to the heart of the UN | Yvo de Boer
      Ban Ki-moon must shift the UN's focus to take climate into the mainstream debate on sustainable development• Ban Ki-moon ends hands-on involvement in climate change talksThe Cancún climate change conference in December brought the UN negotiating process back from the precipice. It managed to formalise rich country targets tabled a year earlier in Copenhagen, captured major developing country commitments to action and promises significant financial resources for poor nations. But perhaps most significantly Cancún delivered a roadmap for national action that revolves around national plans, intensified reporting requirements and the potential for future market-based approaches.In doing this, Cancún also heralded two significant shifts. First a shift away from a top-down approach where targets are set internationally, towards a far more bottom-up approach that leaves countries free to formulate their own plans, but within a framework that revolves around international monitoring, reporting and verification. Secondly Cancún moved climate action away from a standalone issue and embedded it in the concept of sustainable growth plans.From here on the focus needs to be on implementation and convincingly making the green growth case at the national level. No mean feat, given that the concept of green growth enjoys near universal lip-service, while there is little real evidence that it can be made to work in practice.Advancing the climate negotiations has been a top priority for UN secretary general Ban Ki-moon since the beginning of his tenure and he can rightly claim credit for what has been achieved. Now he must shift the UN's focus to take climate into the mainstream debate on sustainable development.The 2012 celebration of the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development 持続可能な開発の•のBan Ki - moonの主流の議論に気候変動を取る国連のフォーカスを移動する必要がありますのBan Ki - moon手が12月の気候変動talksTheカンクンの気候変動会議への関与の絶壁から戻ってプロセスを交渉する国連を持って終了します

    • Threat of climate change demands we re-engineer the world economy right now | Damian Carrington
      To break the link between growth and carbon emissions, we must adopt a top-down approach of binding climate goalsAs an alarm call, the surge in emissions revealed by the International Energy Association is deafening. After the banking crisis of 2008, the cooling of the global economy had appeared to have given our wheezing, warming world pause for breath.As GDP went into reverse, so did energy use and the pumping of planet-heating gases into the atmosphere. Attempts to agree global action went into reverse at the same time, despite the 120 heads of state who burned the midnight oil in Copenhagen in 2009.But while the global economy has roared back to life, the UN's negotiations remain on life support, and with little hope of recovery.Two truths emerge from this mismatch. First, the link between economic growth and carbon dioxide must be broken. The world's economy runs on energy, and while most of that power continues to comes from coal, oil and gas, global GDP and carbon emissions will be bound together in lockstep. The latest data show a near perfect correlation, and that shows how little impact, in a worldwide context, renewable and nuclear power is making.Second, the rich industrialised world and the poor developing world must align their hopes and fears: they inhabit the same planet. All nations are united in understanding that unchecked climate change poses a grave threat in every part of the world.Citizens in London, New York and Tokyo have grown rich from a century or more of fossil-fuelled industrialisation. They have the most wealth to lose and are, with notable exceptions, the keenest to cut carbon fast. But for those in Delhi, Rio and Beijing, where economic growth surges onwards, the improvement of living standards, from electricity to education, is even mo 成長と炭素排出量の間のリンクを解除するには、我々は結合気候変動のトップダウンアプローチを採用する必要があります、国際エネルギー協会が明らかに排出量の急増は、耳をつんざくような、アラームコールをgoalsAs

    • The Looming Failure of Obamacare, Part 2: Incentives
      Last week, I discussed information problems that were fundamental to third-party payer health care systems like Obamacare.  By eliminating the prosaic act of shopping, the government has cut themselves off from critical information about the preferences and tradeoffs made by three hundred million Americans.  As a result, any attempts to set pricing top-down are doomed to failure, as evidenced by the impossibility of implementing the "doc fix" to change Medicare reimbursement rates for doctors. 先週、私はObamacareのようなサードパーティ製の支払者医療制度の基本とされた情報の問題について討論しました

    • BP's Deepwater Horizon leak ready to be permanently sealed
      Mud and cement will be pumped through relief well to seal ruptured well from bottom After five months, the oil well that spewed millions of gallons of crude into the Gulf of Mexico is finally on the verge of being plugged.A relief well drilled nearly 2.5 miles beneath the floor of the Gulf of Mexico has intersected BP's blown-out well, a prelude to permanently killing it, the US government said on Thursday.Retired coast guard Admiral Thad Allen, the government's representative, said that data showed the two wells were joined. The next step will be to pump mud and cement down through the relief well to seal the ruptured well.According to the government, the final seal should happen by Sunday, five agonising months after an explosion killed 11 workers, sank a drilling rig and led to the worst offshore oil spill in US history. BP said yesterday that it expected the well to be completely sealed by Saturday.The leak was contained in mid-July after a temporary cap was successfully fitted to the well. Mud and cement were later pushed down through the top, allowing the cap to be removed. But the blown-out well cannot be declared dead until it is sealed from the bottom.The 20 April blast sank the Deepwater Horizon rig and triggered the spill that eventually spewed 780 million litres of oil from the well. BP, the owner of the well, was leasing the rig from owner Transocean Ltd.The disaster caused an environmental nightmare along hundreds of miles of Gulf shoreline. It also prompted civil and criminal investigations, cost gaffe-prone BP chief Tony Hayward his job and brought increased scrutiny to the oil industry, including a costly moratorium on deepwater offshore drilling that is still in place.Gulf residents will be feeling the pain for years to come. There is still plenty of o 泥やセメント救済を井戸の底から5カ月後に破裂、油井これはメキシコ湾に原油のガロン数百万人を吐き出したシールに励起される最終的にplugged.A救済されての瀬戸際にもほぼ2.5マイルドリルですメキシコ湾の床の下にも、永久に殺害への序曲をBP社の本格的なアウト交差ており、米国政府はThursday.Retired沿岸警備隊提督サドアレン、政府の代表で、データが結合された2つの井戸を示した当該

    • A peaceful strategy for Palestinian independence | Ziad Asali
      Palestinians are adding a series of bottom-up tactics to augment top-down negotiations and diplomacyPalestinians have recently been developing a peaceful multilevel strategy to achieve their national goals of a negotiated peace agreement with Israel, an end to the occupation, and the creation of a Palestinian state based on the 1967 borders.In the past, Palestinians relied first exclusively on armed struggle, then on armed struggle mixed with diplomacy, and then strictly on diplomacy disrupted by two uprisings in the occupied territories. The present Palestinian leadership, headed by President Mahmoud Abbas and the prime minister, Salam Fayyad, is committed to preventing any return to violence and continuing to seek a negotiated peace agreement. However, Palestinians are also adding a series of bottom-up tactics to augment top-down negotiations and diplomacy.This strategy is being developed in the West Bank, while Hamas continues to cling to the ideology and rhetoric of armed resistance – although there is a clear disconnect between what it says and what it does – with tragic consequences for the people of Gaza and the Palestinian national interest.The most thoroughgoing of the new Palestinian Authority measures is the state- and institution-building programme. Palestinians are working to build the institutional, infrastructural, economic and administrative framework of their state in spite of the occupation, in order to end the occupation. They are taking up the responsibilities of self-government while continuing to insist on the right of self-determination.Palestinians are also increasingly engaged in nonviolent protest and civil disobedience designed to challenge an occupation starkly defined by the separation barrier and settlements that violate their human and civ パレスチナ人はトップダウン交渉やdiplomacyPalestiniansを強化するために、最近平和マルチレベル戦略を、イスラエルの占領に終止符、および作成と交。和平合意の自国の目標を達成するために開発されているボトムアップ戦術一連の追加パレスチナ国家1967 borders.In過去に基づいて、パレスチナ人は最初の排他的武装闘争にし、武装闘争外交と混合し、依存して外。占領地の2つの反乱によって混。厳密に

    • Aid: Making development go | Editorial
      UN millennium development goals need to be more than just a gesture - which is why the Guardian has launched a websiteTen years ago, the millennium development goals held out the prospect for a transformation in the life chances of the global poor. In 2000, every member of the UN agreed the millennium declaration, encompassing eight goals that included halving extreme poverty and hunger, improving health, bringing primary education to every child and empowering women – all measurable objectives to be delivered by national governments. They were designed to focus government effort in developing countries which, in a new venture in global community, would be backed by the rich world.With just five years left to meet the objectives, the MDGs' proponents at this week's UN summit began to look anxiously at progress. Like all extravagant gestures, the goals contain the implicit danger that they will be revealed as just that: a gesture. Failure would be not just a billion individual preventable tragedies; it could be a devastating blow to the recognition of the mutual dependence on which the world's future depends. That is why the Guardian, supported by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, has launched a website to provide a base from where progress can be tracked, policy debated and a toolkit of best practice assembled.There are cogent arguments to be made against the grandiose scale of the MDG project and its top-down structure. As the British government has learned in the past decade, by their very nature targets can distort outcomes. It is true, too, that progress on individual targets can be less than meets the eye: primary enrolment has soared, but investment in education has not always kept pace. Class sizes are often unmanageably large; children sometimes too hungry ガーディアンはwebsiteTen年前に開始した理由である、ミレニアム開発目標は、世界的な貧困層の生活の機会の変換のための見通しを開催 - 国連ミレニアム開発目標は、単にジェスチャー以上する必要があります


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